This might be a bit unclear so ill go through the columns after the image, its basically a list of all the buildings showing those worst effected by large distances to those in which it does not matter as much:

For farms, cutters, foresters the table is based on the distance being the same between their resource and the storehouse, also bear in mind all these buildings production involves them going back to the production building with the resource they gathered BEFORE they place it in the storehouse, this means placing fields around a storehouse is slower since the farmers revisit their farms before placing the item in the storehouse.

total seconds = hours and minutes converted to seconds and summed together.
travel time counted = number of trips the settler makes, for most buildings this involves 4 trips, but only 2 for mines.
travel = 6 = total production time if the travel time is only 6 seconds (ie workyard is placed right next to the storehouse, best time you can get).
& inc = percentage increase on the base time.
(above 2 repeated with a 30 second travel time instead)
percentage increase per extra distance unit = each second of extra travel time increases the total production time by this percentage.

As a summary, pinewood cutters are slowed down a great deal if far from trees and the storehouse, a school suffers very little change in time so being near a storehouse is not quite as important.

Please tell me if I made any silly mistakes :P this may not be 100% accurate.